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Against the grain of such anti-universalist sentiments, I should like to address in this essay, first, contentions over the status of literary universals and universals in general and, second, in broad-brush fashion, propose possible candidates for universals themselves. Moreland, analytic philosophers usually fall within three major schools of thought regarding the nature of properties: Many literary theorists, most notably Derrida, have taken up the extreme nominalist position.
Rather than merely contest the relationship between language and what we might believe exists in the world, for Derrida language is all-encompassing: An obvious example of an HPC would be the human heart, whose structure and function are clearly persistent over time, even if in evolutionary time the heart has been modified by natural, selective pressures as well as a host of man-made pressures, such as high-cholesterol diets.
A less obvious example of an HPC would be the amygdala, whose structure and function has persisted over evolutionary time for millions of years: An HPC, then, can designate anything, from a discrete biological system, non-aesthetic properties underlying aesthetic concepts e. To clarify with an analogy: The same has been said about universality in the arts.
Literary theorists have long championed the centrality of universals, most notably E. Alas, literary movements—and academic careers, for that matter—routinely revolve around denying universalism altogether, going so far as to claim that there is no shared response to anything, only culturally contingent interpretations Bohannan; Stanley Fish Is There; Smith Contingencies of Value.
Even a few neuroscientists seem to have taken up the anti-universalist banner. In her critique of emotional natural kinds, Barrett confuses the wholephenomenology of emotion—all its complex expressive variations—withpartsof the brain whose properties reputedly evolved to express emotions, such as the amygdaloid complex.
Social constructive elements certainly modulate emotions: I cannot fear a ghost unless I have been indoctrinated with a belief in ghosts, first. However, what binds all emotional semantic categories together, across-cultures, are neurobiological substrata in our mind-brains that facilitate emotional expressions, generally.
Put another way, if a universal psychological system—such as one dedicated to processing disgust—is also involved in processing other kinds of affective responses, such as moral repugnance, then that system cannot be said to lack functional specialization fora particular, natural kind of emotion.
And most recent neuroscientific reviews on kinds of emotion bear this argument out: The same could be said for other kinds of emotions, such as disgust, and, yes, even love. Patrick Colm Hogan elaborates on this lesson in one of his recent books, Beauty and Sublimity.
On the contrary, that we all share a visual system in kinddoes not entail uniformity in representational function, in particular. Would they be textual, psychological, biological, perceptual? If there is no invariant substrate in the mind or in literary works that, say, is shown to be active for all of us when responding to the death of Romeo and Juliet, then there is nothing foundational upon which to warrant claims of literary universality.
Literary universals must, on this view, rest on epistemological substrates that are stable enough, across individuals, to warrant claims of universality. Epistemological substrata organize around universal systems in the mind-brain.
Literary universals, thus, can be better understood as mind-dependently objective, that is, as classifiable kinds of interactions between real observable, measurable physical structures in our minds, textual forms, and how we respond to them.A CRITICAL ASSESSMENT OF THE EXERCISE OF.
UNIVERSAL JURISDICTION BY SOUTH AFRICAN COURTS. Christopher Burke.
Thesis presented for the degree of Master of Law at. Stellenbosch University. Department of Public Law. Faculty of Law. the exercise of universal jurisdiction. Law. Universal intellectual standards are standards which must be applied to thinking whenever one is interested in checking the quality of reasoning about a problem, issue, or situation.
To think critically entails having command of these standards. To help students learn them, teachers should pose. A Critical Assessment of Universals of Translation: in the Light of Corpus-Based Approach In the light of corpus-based approach Introduction The s witnessed the rapid development of the corpus-based approach to translation studies.
North Atlantic universals are always seductive, at times even irresistible, precisely because they manage to hide their specific—localized, and thus parochial—historical location.
It makes sense to be modern. A critical assessment of modernity must start with the revelation of its hidden faces. A Critical Assessment of the Resource Depletion Potential of Current and Future Lithium-Ion Batteries Jens F.
Peters 1, * and Marcel Weil 1,2. In addition to assessment of core behaviours and diagnostic skills, considerations for the expert assessor include the functions of primary care, systemic and personal barriers, knowledge of current assessment tools and research pertaining to comorbid pathology in AN, assessing severity of illness, role of family at assessment, as well as medical, nutritional and compulsory elements of assessment.