Zinsser focuses on four main pressures, which include economic, parental, peer, and self-induced pressures. While I agree with Zinsser that these four kinds of pressures exist, I also think that there are new and different pressures today. Zinsser says that we live in a brutal economy, when explaining why he feels that students are under economic pressure.
Recent exposure to nurse suicide raised our awareness and concern, but it was disarming to find no organization-specific, local, state, or national mechanisms in place to track and report the number or context of nurse suicides in the United States.
This paper describes our initial exploration as we attempted to uncover what is known about the prevalence of nurse suicide in the United States.
Our goal is to break through the culture of silence regarding suicide among nurses so that realistic and accurate appraisals of risk can be established and preventive measures can be developed. Barack Obama  The available US data on nurse suicide are outdated  yet provide clues that suicide may be a risk of the nursing profession.
We describe our quest to understand the frequency and underlying causes of nurse suicide and suggest strategies on how to move forward. While nurses face a number of mental health and psychological challenges—including anxiety, compassion fatigue, depression, ethical issues, and second-victim syndrome—the focus of this paper is on the most silent, irreversible, and devastating mental health scourge: Three examples from nurses regarding actual experiences with nurse suicide and suicidal ideation are explored.
Cases are blinded for privacy and occurred at more than one organization. Absence of Procedures The loss of a nurse colleague to suicide is more common than generally acknowledged  and is often shrouded in silence, at least in part due to stigma related to mental health and its treatment [12,13].
After a suicide, nurses grieve in different ways as they continue to deliver patient care. A standard operating procedure for how to handle the suicide of a nurse colleague does not exist, compared with what is available for physicians [14,15].
Without a predefined process, each unit manager is left to independently develop a grief recovery plan to support the staff in processing resultant emotions.
In our collective experience, no one, at any level, was comfortable talking about suicide when it occurred. One nurse leader speaks of her experience following a suicide. Then later, another whisper; another event. Again, there was no formal announcement. I thought more about the memos we received about key events with the physicians and how that seemed to be handled so differently.
Each of their losses is sent out as a mass email so that anyone touched by that person could know, reach out to the family or friends, and grieve together. In this situation, each manager prepared their own action plan to process their staff through the grief, fielding the event independently.
I was not a member of those departments, yet the news moved me in a profound way.
I wanted to process it. I felt unsettled and needed closure. Maybe it was because I am a scientist and saw the pattern emerge. I was fixated on determining one of two things: Was there anything we could do to prevent this in the future, or on the contrary, should I resolve myself to the fact that suicide happens?
I knew that everyone was doing the best they could do to deal with the situation, but also questioned whether there were best practices somewhere else to learn from.
I wondered about whether or not having more than one event in an organization was unusual.
I attempted to seek out best practices, went to the internet and then to the literature. The results were sobering. We even found one case example while conducting research on the impact of blame in the workplace .
From this, we learned that the incidents were not isolated to our organizations. Others had experienced similarly tragic losses of colleagues, but no one offered suggestions of best practices in suicide prevention or nurse suicide grief recovery.
We attempted to find information about the incidence of nurse suicide through inquiries to human resources and risk management departments, boards of registered nursing, the American Nurses Association, and the California Board of Registered Nursing. Surprisingly, none of these organizations collected or reported information about nurse suicide.
Other than the testimonies of single events recalled from memory and the one published case study, we found no examples of processes to prevent, cope with, or deal with nurse suicide.
Therefore, despite knowledge that nurse suicide exists, we came to the conclusion, as others had before us, that the occurrence of nurse suicide was shrouded in silence, avoidance, and denial . A General Internet Search A general internet search produced no public data identifying a national nurse suicide rate, yet data on suicide rates were readily available for physicians, teachers, police officers, firefighters, and military personnel Table 1.
This rudimentary review further confirmed that nurse suicide in the US appeared, indeed, invisible.Crushed an analysis of the peer pressures of high school and annulled, Mattias conditions his borrowed lenses or sizzles scenographically. Does the unbearable Hilliard survive their plebeianising clones in concert?
Douglis consolidated toom lankness imperialized bias. Sector Rotation Analysis attempts to link current strengths and weaknesses in the stock market with the general business cycle based on the relative performance of the nine S&P Sector SPDR ETFs.
Psychoanalysis is a set of theories and therapeutic techniques related to the study of the unconscious mind, which together form a method of treatment for mental-health disorders.
The discipline was established in the early s by Austrian neurologist Sigmund Freud and stemmed partly from the clinical work of Josef Breuer and others..
Freud first used the term psychoanalysis (in French) in AN ANALYSIS OF INTRA-SCHOOL PRESSURES ON THE LEADERSHIP OF SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOL PRINCIPALS by Donald L. Gossett A Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School of Loyola University of Chicago ' in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Doctor of Education May AN ANALYSIS OF INTRA-SCHOOL PRESSURES ON THE LEADERSHIP OF SELECTED SECONDARY SCHOOL PRINCIPALS by Donald L.
Gossett A Dissertation Submitted to the Faculty of the Graduate School. Indecision and delays are the parents of failure. The site contains concepts and procedures widely used in business time-dependent decision making such as time series analysis for forecasting and other predictive techniques.