Jul 21, M Duncan rated it really liked it Probably a little outdated, but otherwise a very clear introduction to the field and includes a thoughtful conclusion on the relationship between translation studies and comparative literature. Mar 26, Elnaz added it Comparative Literature book written by Susan Bassnett explains to the readers about comparative literature in simple ways.
As revenge, for actions real or imagined. When it is substantially less costly to acquire the secret by means other then a technical attack on the cipher, cryptography has pretty much succeeded in doing what it can do.
Cryptography without Keys It is fairly easy to design a complex cipher program to produce a single complex, intermediate form. In this case, the program itself becomes the "key. So if someone steals your laptop, they probably will also get the deciphering program, which -- if it does not use keys -- will immediately expose all of your carefully protected data.
This is why cryptography generally depends upon at least one remembered key, and why we need ciphers which can produce a multitude of different ciphertexts. Keyspace Cryptography deliberately creates the situation of "a needle in a haystack.
Of course, the opponent might get lucky, but probably will have to perform about half of the possible decipherings to find the message. To keep messages secret, it is important that a cipher be able to produce a multitude of different intermediate forms or ciphertexts.
Clearly, no cipher can possibly be stronger than requiring The opponent to check every possible deciphering. If such a brute force search is practical, the cipher is weak.
The number of possible ciphertexts is the "design strength" of a cipher. If a cipher can be constructed such that every possible plaintext can be deciphered from any given ciphertext, a full brute-force attack just produces every possible plaintext.
Unfortunately, this requires as much keying information as plaintext, which then becomes a key distribution problem as in the one time pad. However, the basic idea might be used to strengthen parts of an overall imperfect cipher.
So the number of different ciphertexts which we can produce is limited to the number of different keys we can use. We describe the keyspace by the length in bits of the binary value required to represent the number of possible ciphertexts or keys.
It is not particularly difficult to design ciphers which may have a design strength of hundreds or thousands of bits, and these can operate just as fast as our current ciphers. Government generally does not allow the export of data ciphers with a keyspace larger than about 40 bits, which is a very searchable value.
Recently, a bit keyspace was searched with special hardware and the correct key found in about 56 hours. Note that a bit key represents times as many transformations as a bit key.
So, all things being equal, similar equipment might find a bit key in about 3 seconds. But at the same rate, an bit key which is presumably times as strong as a bit key would take overyears.
Strength Keyspace alone only sets an upper limit to cipher strength; a cipher can be much weaker than it appears. An in-depth understanding or analysis of the design may lead to "shortcuts" in the solution. Perhaps a few tests can be designed, each of which eliminates vast numbers of keys, thus in the end leaving a searchable keyspace; this is one form of cryptanalysis.
Given the large and developed field of cryptographyone might think that surely there must be tests which can report the strength of an arbitrary cipher. Alas, there can be no such test. Every keyed cipher is weak if the key can be found, so what we normally mean by "strength" is the inability of unknown opponents to develop the correct key based on whatever information they can acquire.
Normally, we assume the opponent has a large amount of both the plaintext and the associated ciphertext, because it is difficult in practice to eliminate all known-plaintext exposure. Thus, strength in practice depends upon the abilities of opponents we cannot know. Those opponents will have all the knowledge of the "open scientific literature," plus whatever additional knowledge they may have developed in their own groups.- “Literature is the most agreeable way of ignoring life” said Fernando Pessoa, During the twentieth century dystopian literature was born out of the utopian literature of the early ’s as a means for people to “escape” the world they lived in and enter a somewhat perfect world.
BibMe Free Bibliography & Citation Maker - MLA, APA, Chicago, Harvard. The Romantic period is short, relative to other literary periods, but is still quite complex. The beginning and ending dates of the Romantic period are identified differently by various scholars, though these dates always coincide with major literary, cultural, political, or social events.
Tamil language and literature of all periods, in particular nineteenth-century literary culture, Tamil cinema, South Indian cultural history; literary theory, theory and practice of literary translation, the global history of the novel, less commonly read literatures in Europe (e.g.
Catalan, Rumantsch, Czech). Definitions.
Definitions of literature have varied over time: it is a "culturally relative definition". In Western Europe prior to the 18th century, literature denoted all books and writing.
A more restricted sense of the term emerged during the Romantic period, in which it began to demarcate "imaginative" writing.
Contemporary debates over what constitutes literature can be seen as returning. Dear Twitpic Community - thank you for all the wonderful photos you have taken over the years.
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