President Ronald Reagan 's intentions and openly fearful he was planning a pre-emptive nuclear strike against the Soviet Union. These fears culminated in RYANthe code name for a secret intelligence-gathering program initiated by Andropov to detect a potential nuclear sneak attack which he believed Reagan was plotting. In addition, pursuit was made more difficult, according to Soviet Air Force Captain Aleksandr Zuyevwho defected to the West inbecause ten days before Arctic gales had knocked out the key warning radar on the Kamchatka Peninsula. Furthermore he stated that local officials responsible for repairing the radar lied to Moscow, falsely reporting that they had successfully fixed the radar.
Where it is feasible, a syllabus headnote will be released, as is being done in connection with this case, at the time the opinion is issued. The syllabus constitutes no part of the opinion of the Court but has been prepared by the Reporter of Decisions for the convenience of the reader. See United States v.
Argued April 28, —Decided June 26, [ 1 ] Michigan, Kentucky, Ohio, and Tennessee define marriage as a union between one man and one woman.
The petitioners, 14 same-sex couples and two men whose same-sex partners are deceased, filed suits in Federal District Courts in their home States, claiming that respondent state officials violate the Fourteenth Amendment by denying them the right to marry or to have marriages lawfully performed in another State given full recognition.
The Fourteenth Amendment requires a State to license a marriage between two people of the same sex and to recognize a marriage between two people of the same sex when their marriage was lawfully licensed and performed out-of-State.
To the respondents, it would demean a timeless institution if marriage were extended to same-sex couples. Changes, such as the decline of arranged marriages and the abandonment of the law of coverture, have worked deep transformations in the structure of marriage, affecting aspects of marriage once viewed as essential.
These new insights have strengthened, not weakened, the institution. Changed understandings of marriage are characteristic of a Nation where new dimensions of freedom become apparent to new generations.
Well into the 20th century, many States condemned same-sex intimacy as immoral, and homosexuality was treated as an illness. Later in the century, cultural and political developments allowed same-sex couples to lead more open and public lives.
Extensive public and private dialogue followed, along with shifts in public attitudes. Questions about the legal treatment of gays and lesbians soon reached the courts, where they could be discussed in the formal discourse of the law.
Inthis Court overruled its decision in Bowers v. Inthe federal Defense of Marriage Act was also struck down. Numerous same-sex marriage cases reaching the federal courts and state supreme courts have added to the dialogue.
Courts must exercise reasoned judgment in identifying interests of the person so fundamental that the State must accord them its respect. History and tradition guide and discipline the inquiry but do not set its outer boundaries.
Applying these tenets, the Court has long held the right to marry is protected by the Constitution. For example, Loving v. To be sure, these cases presumed a relationship involving opposite-sex partners, as did Baker v.
But other, more instructive precedents have expressed broader principles.This Article is brought to you for free and open access by the Law Journals and Related Materials at Berkeley Law Scholarship Repository.
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